Musher Leonhard Seppala posing with six of his sled dogs, circa 1924-1925. Dog's names from left to right - Togo,
 left to right - Togo



In the midst of a devastating diphtheria outbreak in Nome, Alaska, in 1925, two heroic sled dogs, Togo and Balto, emerged as unsung heroes, defying all odds to overcome adversity and save countless lives. Togo, a seasoned Siberian Husky, led the initial leg of the journey, braving treacherous blizzards and icy terrain to transport life-saving serum from Nenana to Bluff, a staggering 260 miles.

Meanwhile, Balto, a younger but equally determined dog, took up the relay, navigating the final 53 miles to Nome, his team battling against howling winds and subzero temperatures. As the epidemic raged on, the duo's unwavering perseverance and unrelenting spirit inspired a team of brave mushers and volunteers, who together, against all odds, delivered the crucial medicine to the stricken town.

This remarkable feat of canine courage and human determination not only saved countless lives but also cemented Togo and Balto's places in history as symbols of hope and resilience in the face of adversity.

Togo & Balto: Heroes of the 1925 Serum Run

The story of Togo and Balto is one of bravery, endurance, and heroism. These two Siberian Huskies played pivotal roles in the 1925 serum run to Nome, a daring mission that saved countless lives and cemented their place in history. Let's delve into the lives of these remarkable dogs, exploring their early years, their critical role in the serum run, and their lasting legacy.

The 1925 Serum Run: A Historical Context

The year was 1925, and the world was on the brink of a global pandemic. The Spanish Flu, which had ravaged the globe just a decade prior, had left a lingering fear of infectious diseases. In the frozen tundra of Alaska, a small community was on the verge of disaster. Diphtheria, a highly contagious and deadly disease, had begun to spread rapidly among the Inupiat people, leaving doctors and health officials scrambling to find a solution.

Against this backdrop of uncertainty and urgency, a heroic tale of bravery and dedication was about to unfold. The 1925 Serum Run, as it would come to be known, was a perilous journey that would test the limits of human endurance and cement the legacies of two unlikely heroes: Togo and Balto. The stage was set for a dramatic and inspiring story of sacrifice, perseverance, and the power of the human spirit.

Iditarod Trail BLM map

Credit: U.S. Bureau of Land Management . Public Domain

Early Life Togo:

Born in 1913, Togo was part of the renowned musher Leonhard Seppala's kennel. From an early age, Togo displayed exceptional intelligence and a strong work ethic. Despite being initially considered too small and weak for sledding, he quickly proved his capabilities.

Togo's early life was characterized by his rebellious spirit. He repeatedly escaped from his kennel to follow Seppala and his sled team. Recognizing Togo's potential, Seppala eventually trained him to be a lead dog, where he excelled.

Later Years: After retiring, Togo lived with Seppala in Poland Spring, Maine, where he sired many offspring .Togo passed away on December 5, 1929, at the age of 16.


Born in 1919, Balto was also part of Seppala's kennel but was considered less impressive than Togo. Initially, he was not chosen as a lead dog and worked in a support role. Despite this, he demonstrated reliability and strength, qualities that would later prove crucial.Later Years: He lived his later years in the Cleveland Zoo after being part of a traveling exhibit.Balto died on March 14, 1933, at the age of 14.

Role in the 1925 Serum Run

In January 1925, a diphtheria outbreak threatened the isolated town of Nome, Alaska. With no immediate access to life-saving serum, and the town's supply exhausted, an urgent relay of sled dog teams was organized to transport the serum from Nenana to Nome, covering approximately 674 miles in brutal winter conditions.

Togo's Contribution:

Togo and Seppala's team covered the longest and most perilous leg of the journey, traveling over 260 miles through treacherous terrain and extreme weather. Togo's leadership, stamina, and navigation skills were critical in overcoming the harsh conditions. His ability to lead the team through whiteouts, blizzards, and across hazardous ice floes made him the true hero of the serum run.

Balto's Contribution:

Balto, led by musher Gunnar Kaasen, covered the final leg of the relay, delivering the serum to Nome. Although Balto's journey was significantly shorter than Togo's, it was no less important. Kaasen and Balto faced their own challenges, including blinding snow and fierce winds. Balto's steady leadership and unwavering determination ensured the serum arrived safely, solidifying his place in history.

The legendary Serum Run of 1925, a heroic tale of dogged determination and canine bravery, would not have been possible without the stalwart contributions of Togo and Balto, two Siberian Huskies who played a pivotal role in the historic journey. Togo, the lesser-known but equally valiant hero, led his team of dogs on the longest and most treacherous leg of the journey, covering 260 miles of rugged Alaskan terrain in sub-zero temperatures. His unwavering spirit and endurance set the stage for the final push, as he handed over the precious serum to Balto, the charismatic lead dog who would complete the final 53 miles to Nome. With his keen instincts and unyielding drive, Balto navigated the treacherous ice and blizzards, ultimately delivering the life-saving diphtheria serum to the desperate residents of Nome, earning himself a permanent place in the annals of history.

Speed and Endurance

Both Togo and Balto exemplified the speed and endurance typical of Siberian Huskies, a breed renowned for their ability to cover great distances in harsh conditions.


During the serum run, Togo demonstrated unparalleled endurance by leading his team through a non-stop 85-mile run in a single day. His exceptional stamina and resilience were vital in navigating the most challenging parts of the route.


Balto's endurance was showcased during the final leg of the relay. Despite facing near-zero visibility and temperatures dropping to -40°F, Balto led his team with remarkable speed and reliability, ensuring the life-saving serum reached Nome on time.

The duo's remarkable feats of endurance, speed, and agility demonstrated the extraordinary capabilities of sled dogs, solidifying their place in the annals of Arctic exploration and rescue history.

Family Life, Training, and Socialization

Leonhard Seppala kneeling in front of a car with three of his sled Dogs


Togo had a close bond with Seppala, which was key to his successful training and performance. Seppala's training focused on harnessing Togo's natural instincts and intelligence. The mutual trust and understanding between them were crucial in navigating the treacherous terrain during the serum run.

Balto with Gunnar Kaasen, his musher in the 1925 Serum Run.
Balto with Gunnar Kaasen, his musher in the 1925 Serum Run.


Balto's training under Seppala and later under Kaasen emphasized discipline and reliability. While Balto was not Seppala's first choice as a lead dog, his steadfast nature and strong work ethic made him a reliable team member. Balto's calm demeanor and ability to work well under pressure were critical during the final leg of the serum run.

For Togo and Balto, the legendary Siberian Husky duo, family life, training, and socialization were intricately intertwined. Born in 1913 and 1919, respectively, these two canine heroes were bred to thrive in the harsh Alaskan wilderness. Their early life was marked by rigorous training, where they learned to pull sleds, navigate treacherous terrain, and respond to commands.

This training was not only physically demanding but also emotionally challenging, as they were required to form strong bonds with their human handlers. Socialization was also a critical component of their development, as they were exposed to various people, animals, and environments, teaching them to be calm, focused, and obedient in the face of adversity. This trifecta of family life, training, and socialization ultimately enabled Togo and Balto to achieve their most notable feats, including Togo's record-breaking 260-mile run in 1925 and Balto's heroic delivery of life-saving diphtheria serum to Nome, Alaska, in 1925.

Fame and Legacy

Togo's Legacy:

Despite Togo's crucial role in the serum run, his fame was initially overshadowed by Balto. However, in recent years, Togo has gained recognition as the true hero of the mission. Togo lived out his later years in comfort, celebrated by those who knew of his extraordinary contributions. Today, Togo is honored through books, documentaries, and a statue in New York City's Central Park.

Balto's Legacy:

Balto became an instant hero and a symbol of courage and endurance. A statue of Balto was erected in Central Park in 1925, honoring his contribution to the serum run. Balto toured the United States, raising awareness for the capabilities and heroism of sled dogs. He spent his final years at the Cleveland Zoo, where he was adored by visitors.

Togo and Balto's legacy extends far beyond the original 1925 serum run. They have become iconic symbols of hope, perseverance, and teamwork, inspiring generations of people around the world. Their story has been immortalized in books, films, and artworks, ensuring that their bravery and sacrifice will never be forgotten. The heroes' reception and legacy serve as a powerful reminder of the impact that two extraordinary dogs can have on the lives of others, and the enduring bond that exists between humans and animals.

Togo and Balto: Awards and Honors

Togo and Balto, the heroic sled dogs, have received numerous awards and honors for their bravery and endurance during the 1925 serum run to Nome. Togo's awards include:

Togo's Awards and Honors

 • A gold medal from the Mayor of New York City 

• The "Best Canine Hero" award from the American Veterinary Medical Association in 2011

 • A statue in Seward Park, New York City, unveiled in 2001 

• The Disney movie "Togo" released in 2019, highlighting his story and bond with his musher • Several dog parks, trails, and events named after him, ensuring his legacy continues to inspire future generations. These recognitions cement Togo's legacy as an icon of bravery and endurance, and his story continues to inspire and educate the public about his critical role in the serum run. Balto's Awards and Honors Balto, the heroic sled dog, received numerous awards and honors for his bravery in the 1925 serum run to Nome. He was awarded medals, including one from the Norwegian-American community, and was given a hero's welcome in the United States. A statue of Balto was erected in Central Park, New York City, in 1925, with a plaque commemorating his endurance, fidelity, and intelligence. Another statue can be found in Anchorage, Alaska, recognizing his role in the serum run. Balto's preserved body is on display at the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, providing educational opportunities about the historic event. His story has been told through various media, including books, documentaries, and films, such as the 1995 animated film "Balto," which brought his legacy to a new generation of fans.


Togo and Balto's contributions to the 1925 serum run are legendary, showcasing the remarkable capabilities of Siberian Huskies. Their stories of bravery, endurance, and loyalty continue to inspire and captivate audiences worldwide. By understanding the roles these extraordinary dogs played, we can appreciate the unique qualities of Siberian Huskies and their historical significance. Their legacy lives on, reminding us of the incredible bond between humans and dogs and the feats they can achieve together.

For further reading, consider exploring:

Understanding Siberian Husky Behavior: Tips for a Happier Home 

How to Train Your Siberian Husky: A Step-by-Step Guide 

 By appreciating their history and adapting our care to suit their needs, we can ensure that Siberian Huskies continue to thrive as cherished members of our families. 

 For further information consider American Kennel Club